Attachment 1

BIOGEOSCIENCES

Academician Georgii A. Zavarzin, Institute of Microbiology RAS, Moscow, Russia
Corresponding member RAS Alexey Yu. Rozanov, Paleontological Institute RAS, Moscow, Russia
Corresponding member RAS Nikolay A. Kolchanov, Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

Guide for Authors

Submission of Papers
All manuscripts should be submitted in triplicate (plus electronic version on the disk) at the Workshop registration desk. They will be subjected to the normal refereeing procedure which will start immediately after the Workshop. The refereeing process will be organized by the Guest-Editors of the Special Issue from the Workshop Organization and supervised by the Editor in charge of BIOGEOSCIENCES.

Volume of Papers
The papers should not exceed 20 pages (A4 format) including tables, artworks and references.

Language
The principal language of the Journal is English.

Files
Authors are kindly requested to compile their publication into the following separate files and to name them accordingly with the type of document as extension:

2.1

The actual text followed by the table(s) and figure caption(s) prepared in the way given below as one file named ms-no-tx (tx for "Text")

2.2

The complete abstract compiled in the style and lay-out as for European Geosciences Union meeting and conference abstracts as one file named ms-no-ab (ab for "Abstract")

2.3

The figures f01, f02, ..., f11, f01a, f01b, ... prepared in the way given below in separate files named ms-no-f01a (f for "Figure")

2.4

Any supplement files, such as, e.g., data sets, in separate files named ms-no-sp1 (sp for "Supplement")

2.5

The Author's Response in case of "minor" or "major" revisions requested by the Editor, as a separate file name ms-no-rp (rp for "Response")

In general, authors are requested to submit their paper, zipped or not zipped, in form of the following separate files: Text (-tx) plus Abstract (-ab) plus Figures (-f01) and, if existent,  Supplement Files  (-sp). In case of a "minor" or "major" revision which has to be reviewed again before publication, authors are also requested to submit the Author's Response file (-rp). Since for the reviewing procedure the Abstract File and the Full Manuscript File will be used in pdf format it is recommended that authors also submit the complete Abstract File (-ab) and the Full Manuscript File (-ms) as pdf files for a faster and more cost effective evaluation.

Manuscript Preparation
The pages of a manuscript should be placed in the following order: title page, abstract, text, appendices, acknowledgements, references, tables and figure captions. The text file should carry the ms-no followed directly by -tx plus the type of document as extension. All pages should be numbered consecutively.

Title page
The first page should bear:

Abstract
The abstract should be complete in itself and be 3-4% of the length of the paper. It should be suitable for separate publication in an abstract journal and state the main results clearly; a mere table of contents should be avoided.

Sections
The headings of all sections, including introduction, results, discussions or summary must be numbered. Three levels of sectioning are allowed, e.g. 3, 3.1 and 3.1.1.

Appendices
Appendices should be labeled with capital letters: Appendix A, Appendix B etc. Equations, figures and tables should be numbered as (A1), Fig B5 or Table C6, respectively.

Footnotes
Footnotes should be avoided. However, if present, they should be numbered consecutively. Footnotes to tables should be marked by lowercase letters.

Units
The metric system is mandatory and, wherever, possible, SI units should be used.

Date & Time
Keep to the European Geosciences Union style with regards to date (dd/mm/yyyy) and time (hh:mm:ss)

Mathematical symbols and formulae
All characters should be typed. To prevent confusion, similar looking (or rarely used) symbols should be distinguished clearly and, if necessary, explained in the text. Please avoid possible confusion between letters and numbers (L, and I, I and 1, o and zero) and between Greek letters and Roman letters (nu, upsilon and v, rho and p, kappa, chi and x, epsilon and E) etc.

Equations
Equations should be numbered sequentially with arabic numerals in parentheses on the right hand side, i.e. (1), (2), etc. If too long, split them accordingly. If there are chemical formulae included, i.e. reactions, please number them (R1), (R2), etc.

When using WORD, the equation-editor and not the graphic-mode should be used under all circumstances.

Figures
All figures, whether colour illustrations, photographs, line drawings or images, should be submitted as separate files in one of the stated formats and numbered in the order of occurrence in the text. The inscriptions and labelling should be clearly legible.

Legends or figure captions
Each illustration should be provided with a concise but descriptive legend. Phrases such as 'For explanation, see text' should be avoided.
Figure captions should be included in the text file and not in the figure files.

Tables
Each table should be numbered sequentially with Arabic numerals and units should appear at the top of the column. Tables should be included in the text file.

References
Reference list:
Only works that are cited in the text and that have been accepted for publication or published already should be listed alphabetically at the end of the paper under the first author's name, while works "submitted to" or "in preparation" or "in review" or only available as preprint should not be included in the reference list. They must be listed in a footnote directly in the text. "Private communication" and private webpages are only allowed in the text. This decision was made on the EGU Council Meeting on 30 April 2004 and is valid for all EGU Publications. Two or more works by two authors should be listed alphabetically according to the second author's name. Works by three or more authors should be listed chronologically. If there is more than one work by the same author or team of authors in the same year, a, b, c etc. is added to the year both in the text and in the list of references. Please supply full author list with Last Name and Initial(s). If this is not possible, then at least the first 3 authors then "et al." may be used. After the list of authors the complete reference title has to be named. Journal names are abbreviated according to the
Chemical Abstract Service Source Index, followed by the volume number, the complete page numbers (first and last page) and the publication year. Please write out titles in full, if abbreviation is not known.

Example for reference list:
Fejer, B. C., Farley, D. T., Woodman, R. F., and Calderon, C.: Dependence of equatorial F-region vertical drift on season and solar cycle, Geophys. Res. Lett., 86, 215--218, 1981. Helliwell, R. A.: Whistlers and related ionospheric phenomena, Stanford Univ. Press, California, 1965.

Example for citation in text:
Citations in the text should be by author(s) and year. Where there are two authors, both should be named; when a work with more than two authors is mentioned, only the first author's name plus 'et al.' need to be given, e.g., Helliwell (1965) or (Helliwell, 1965) or Fejer et al. (1981) or (Helliwell, 1965; Fejer et al., 1981).

How to Prepare the Figure Files
The figure files without their figure captions included should carry the ms-no followed directly by -f01, -f02 or-f03a, -f03b etc. plus the type of document as extension:

Line art
All line art (line/vector graphs) must be true vector encapsulated postscript (.eps) created from graphics-creation software (e.g. Illustrator, CorelDraw, Freehand, etc). The fonts must be embedded in the .eps file, using standard or Postscript fonts. Please avoid unconventional fonts that may not be recognized. Choose a font type and size (and thickness) that is clearly readable on the final scale, such as Arial 12 pt, remembering that the final typeset paper is in a two column format. Avoid faint lines and font colours. No lines lighter than
Ĺ point, i.e. do not use hairline rules. Thin white lines and text on a dark background are not recommended as they may not print out well because the white lines are "flooded" due to dithering. By thickening these lines and text, it will help a great deal. Avoid printing millions of dots or lines on top of each other. In vector graphics, this results in unnecessary large files.

Tip: Try to avoid saving line/vector graphs as .tif, .jpg, .gif, etc, as these will convert vector to pixels and can cause pixelation and a low quality result if the resolution is not high enough, i.e. 200 dpi. If this is unavoidable, then save as a .tif file with 300 dpi for the best quality resolution for printing.

NOTE: keep to the European Geosciences Union style with regards to date (dd/mm/yyyy) and time (hh:mm:ss), when including this in all figures.

If at all possible, avoid scanning line dominated graphics. Unless a good deal of attention is given to these files, the result is quite poor. If unavoidable, scan in line/vector mode and store in .ps, .eps or .pdf format or as a bitmap (tif) with at least 300 dpi resolution (print quality).

Photographs/Images
Photographs and images must be saved as either .jpg, .png, .gif, or .tif with a resolution of not less than 150-300 dpi. Try and avoid very large sized files. A good size would be 10 cm in width with a resolution of 200 dpi or not larger than 18 cm in width and with a resolution of at least 150 dpi per 10 cm.

All other formats (including hard copy scanning) can be handled but please be aware, that this is additional work for the European Geosciences Union Production Office and will result in an extra service charge.

If the extensions f01, f02 or f03a, f03b etc do not correspond to the abbreviations of the actual Figures in the list of figure captions and thus of the Figures in the text, a table of reference has to be included in the text file. Avoid submitting Figure files with unrecognisable names, as this may cause incorrect Figure placement and numbering when typeset by the Production Office.

How to Prepare the Authors' Response File

In case the Editor has requested a "minor" or a "major" revision of a paper to be reviewed again before publication, the author is kindly requested to submit the revised files (text and/or figures) plus the "Author's Response":

Submission to BIOGEOSCIENCES
The final article (after the reviewing and approval of the Guest-Editor) must be submitted to the Publication Production Office in the following way:
in digital format and preferably, zipped or not zipped, by file-upload, email or ftp to the 
Editorial Support or to the Production Office, respectively; however, work submitted on diskette or CD-ROM will also be accepted. Hardcopy manuscripts have to be sent by mail and under no circumstances by fax!

Together with their manuscript registrations author in return receive the link for uploding their files.

Files submitted by email should not exceed 15 MB.

For ftp submission, please contact the Editorial or the Production Office to receive a password and the ftp address.

 

The example of the manuscript (Word document) is given below.

How the western frontiers were won with the help of geophysics

J. G. Smith1 and H. K. Weston2,*

[1]{Institute for Historical Geophysics, Houston, Texas}
[2]{School for Military Advances, London, United Kingdom}
[*]{now at: Playa del Ingles, Gran Canaria}
Correspondence to: J. G. Smith (jgsmith@coldmail.com)

Abstract

To date, very little has been written about the very important role played by the magnetosphere during the conquest of the Western Hemisphere. This paper tries to fill this gap by drawing on historical documents from the years 1492 to 1888, the most vital years for this development. Almost no conclusions are drawn as the influence appears to approach absolute zero.

  1. Introduction
  2. With the discovery of America (Columbus, 1492) a new continent was opened up. However its full exploitation by Europeans and their offspring was not fully complete until many centuries later, as reported by James et al. (1776).
    During this interval, known as the Winning of the West (Smith and Weston, 1954), a major role in the development of the continent was played by the lowly revolver (e.g. Green et al., 1900). Recently, Phillips (1999) suggested that the magnetosphere could have played an even more significant role. In order to pursue this conjecture, the authors of this work have carried out a historical survey and have found startlingly little evidence for such a claim.

  3. The discovery
  4. America was discovered by Columbus (1492), as illustrated in Fig. 2.Without the use of the compass, this would never have been possible. In fact, this could be considered the most important (and only) contribution of the geomagnetism to the development of the American continent. A painting of Christopher Columbus is shown in Fig. 1.
    The subsequent taming of the West took place with considerable quantities of lead, but since this metal is non-magnetic, there are no geomagnetic variances attributed to it.

  5. The next five centuries
  6. In Sect. 1, the discovery of America was described. Here we will outline the subsequent history until the present. This is best summarized in Table 1.
    As can be seen from Table 1, there is almost no mention of geomagnetism or the magnetosphere at all. This sorry situation is discussed further and explained away in Sect. 4.

    3.1   The mathematics of development

    The complete mathematical description is beyond the scope of this report, but can be found in Smith and Weston (1954). The basic equation is

     
    . (1)
    In addition to Eq. (1), we also have
    , (2)
    , (3)
    . (4)
    Equations (1) and (2) together describe the entire time development of the history of America. Again no geomagnetic term enters.  

    3.1.1   Pseudo-mathematics

    In addition to the true mathematics mentioned above, there are a number of pseudo-mathematical theories, but these cannot be seriously considered by reputable scientists.

    3.2   The chemistry of development

    An important equation in the chemistry of the development is
    C8H18 + 12.5 O2 ® 8 CO2 + 9 H2O. (5)
    Moreover, it is necessary to consider photochemistry:  
    O3 + hn ® O2 + O.(6)

  7. Conclusions
  8. Considering Fig. 2 and Table 1 we see that the influence of the geomagnetic and magnetospheric terms is negligible. Furthermore, Eqs. (1) and (2) add no insight to the problem. We must therefore conclude that Phillips (1999) incorrectly supposed such a connection to exist.

    In spite of this negative result, research will continue on this highly interesting question. For if it were to prove correct, then the consequences would be enormous to say the least.

Appendix A: Mathematical background

Apart from the following equation there is not very much to say about mathematical background to this topic.
(A1)

Acknowledgements

The authors thank their colleagues for continuing support and discussion around the coffee breaks. The editor thanks X. Y. Furore and another referee for assisting in evaluating this paper.

 

References

Columbus, C.: How I Discovered America. Hispanic Press, Barcelona, 1492.
Green, R. J., Fred, U. P., and Norbert, W. P.: Things that go bump in the night, Psych. Today, 46, 345-678, 1900.
James, K., Harris, Jr., G., and Wollops, W.: American independence and magnetism, Revol. Tracts, 32, 34-55, 1776.
Phillips, T. P.: Possible influence of the magnetosphere on American history, www.sma-london.ac.uk/~phillips/magnet_infl.htm, 1999.
Smith, J. G. and Weston, H. K.: Nothing particular in this year's history, J. Oddball Res., 2, 14-15, 1954.

Table 1. The History of America from Discovery to Present

Date

Event

Ref.

1492

Discovery

Columbus (1492)

1776

Independence

James et al. (1776)

1954

Nothing much

Smith and Weston (1954)

1999

Present

Phillips (1999)

Figure 1. Sebastiano del Piombo painted this portrait thirteen years after Columbusís death (from the Columbus Navigation Homepage).

Figure 2. Columbusís voyage to the New World (a rough approximation).